This document presents a summary of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU) and sanctions in the European Union. It provides information on the different approaches for addressing serious infringements in different Member States, as well as an analysis of existing EU and international measures. The study identifies differences between levels of monitoring, control and surveillance in Member States. Also differences are observed between Member States in the following-up of serious infringements and sanctions imposed. The study recommends that Member States prioritize effective enforcement of IUU rules and promote harmonization of penalties.